Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) or Green Purchasing is generally defined as purchasing a product that has a lesser or reduced negative effect or increased positive effect on human health and the environment, when compared with competing products that serve the same purpose. Incorporating EPP in the procurement process considers raw materials acquisition, production, fabrication, manufacturing, packaging, distribution, reuse, operation, maintenance, and disposal of the product. This term includes sourcing recyclable products, recycled products, reusable products, and products that conserve energy or natural resources.
EPP is used interchangeably to mean either environmentally preferable purchasing or an environmentally preferable product. However, for the purpose of this NASPO Guide, EPP will mean environmentally preferable purchasing or green purchasing.
Environmentally preferable products or Sustainable Products (SP) are generally defined as products and services that have a lesser or reduced effect on human health and the environment, when compared to competing products or services that serve the same purpose. As buying and using sustainable products benefits the environment, improves efficiency, and often saves money, in recent years these practices have become an integral part of public procurement.
How to Use this Guide
For those new to EPP, implementing a green purchasing program is not always simple. Such efforts may be challenged by administrative hurdles, technical barriers, and skepticism from purchasers and product end-users.
As a result, NASPO has developed this Green Purchasing Guide for its members and others to use in navigating the sea of information surrounding the adoption of a green purchasing program.
This guide is intended to be a straightforward, easy-to-use document that provides purchasers with:
For a comprehensive Glossary of Terms and definitions related to green purchasing generally accepted in the market place, refer to Green Purchasing Glossary of Terms at the end of this guide.
The following list is a set of environmental factors commonly used in many green purchasing policies:
Example: The City of Sacramento provides a clear list of areas that its policy focuses upon along with supplemental information about each product category.
Example:The City of Portland provides definitive language outlining the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders. Also see Seattle's policy below.
For example, the City of Seattle’s policy reads as follows:
The State of New York Executive Order 4 includes the following language regarding waivers:
Ready to start developing a Green Purchasing program? Refer to Steps to Developing a Green Purchasing Program. The Green Purchasing General Resources section provides you with useful links to green purchasing policies and programs currently utilized in other states and localities.
The guidelines must be followed by federal, state, and local agencies, and contractors that use appropriated federal funds. The guidelines apply only to agencies that spend more than $10,000 per year on each covered item. The RCRA website provides an online database designed to locate documents, including publications and other outreach materials that cover a wide range of RCRA issues and topics. For more information on RCRA visit www.epa.gov/rcraonline.
According to the NACo Green Purchasing Toolkit, there are four basic categories of eco-labels:
Independent Third-Party Certifications -While the FTC guidelines helped to remove a good portion of the most misleading claims, they have not eliminated the problem. To reduce the likelihood of being misled, purchasers often must rely on environmental certifications established by reliable, third-party organizations. Third-party certification is a scientific process by which a product, process, or service is reviewed by a reputable and unbiased auditor who verifies that a set of criteria, claims, or standards is being met.
The basic values of third-party certification are to provide a measure of conformity, satisfy customer demands, and limit supplier risks without the expense of duplicating tests. Certifying organizations are anxious to maintain their reputation and can provide an excellent way to validate marketing claims while protecting consumers from myths, misconceptions, misleading information coming from overzealous manufacturers.
Other Documentation - In the absence of a third-party certification, purchasers may also require that bidders submit documentation from the product manufacturer to substantiate the recycled content or other environmental claims. Such documentation may include test results, MSDS, and affidavits submitted on the manufacturer’s letterhead and signed by a senior company official. The NACo Green Purchasing Toolkit also lists sources for EPP calculators and a verification template. Visit www.uscounties.org/kit/greenkit/3-MeasurementTools.html.
Characteristics of modern greenwashing are outlined below:
Because of potential greenwashing, and the distance between purchasers and production, third party certifications are an important component in verifying green claims. The most frequently cited environmental certification and guidance programs are as follows:
Energy Star Program - www.energystar.gov/
EPEAT - www.epeat.net
Independent, Third Party Certification Organizations:
Chlorine Free Products Association - www.chlorinefreeproducts.org/
Ecolabel Index - www.ecolabelindex.com/
LEED - www.usgbc.org/
UL Environment - www.ul.com/environment
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) - www.fsc.org
Green-e - www.green-e.org
UL GREENGUARD - www.greenguard.org
Green Seal - www.greenseal.org
Non-Third Party Label (Partnership Program):
Design for the Environment (DFE) - www.epa.gov/dfe/
OUTPUT: Commonwealth of Massachusetts Environmental Benefits
|Environmental Benefits Estimate||Equivalent to....|
|Energy Savings||9,690,412 kWhrs||Annual energy needs of 855 households|
|Carbon Dioxide Emissions||21,709 tons||Annual tailpipe emissions of 4263 cars|
|Landfill Space Savings||16,582 cubic yards||829 loaded garbage trucks|
|Number of Trees Saved||52,911||529 acres of wood plantation|
|Non-electrical Energy Savings||77,288 million BTUs||Energy content of 13,325 barrels of oil|
|Weight of Materials Recycled||4,519 tons||Annual solid waste generation of 2123 households|
OUTPUT: Massachusetts Energy Cost Savings
|Environmental Benefit Estimate||Equivalent to…|
|Energy Cost Savings||$1,065,945||13 MA EPP Program’s budgets|
This section includes sample general resources as a starting point for finding information related to sustainability or environmentally preferable purchasing. It also includes examples of numerous online tools, organizations, and informational links to help educate users about green purchasing.
BEES: Building for Environmental and Economic Stability - A software decision-making tool that was first developed by the National Institute of Standards and Testing (NIST) Engineering Laboratory in 1994. The tool was created for and primarily aimed at designers, builders, and product manufacturers, and includes actual environmental and economic performance data for two hundred and thirty building products. BEES measures the environmental performance of building products by using the life-cycle assessment approach specified in the ISO 14040 series of standards.
All stages in the life of a product are analyzed: raw material acquisition, manufacture, transportation, installation, use, recycling, and waste management. Economic performance is measured using the ASTM standard life-cycle cost method, which covers the costs of initial investment, replacement, operation, maintenance and repair, and disposal.
There are currently over 18,000 users worldwide. BEES provides understandable, science-based information that is often lacking from green marketing claims. BEES’ development has been supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. EPA Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Program.
BuildingGreen.Com - A resource-filled website related to sustainable design and construction. The site includes current product reviews, blogs, case studies, discussion, and articles from Environmental Building News, a monthly newsletter featuring comprehensive practical information on a range of topics related to sustainable design in the built environment. Users can subscribe to receive monthly news from Environmental Building News by email.
Consumer’s Union "Greener Choices" Guide to Environmental Labels - this (Consumer Reports) site has a label search tool and expert evaluation of labels on food, wood, personal care products, and household cleaners.
Ecolabel Index - The site allows users to search by product, category, or certifier organization, offers information to research label content, and also provides a chronological list of articles about eco-label claims and issues. The indices provide a comprehensive, global, and independent database of over 400 eco-labels, and also provide searchable databases encompassing over two hundred countries and multiple industry sectors.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency LCAccess - Provides information on life cycle assessment, including databases and case studies.
State and Local Governments'
Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Programs and Policies
The following are links to green purchasing policies and programs currently utilized in other states and localities:
Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Agricultural Marketing Service manages the National Organic Program (USDA Organic) label for products meeting federal standards that addresses pesticide and fertilizer use as well as other approved methods used to grow, harvest, and process food and other agricultural products.
BioPreferred Program was linked to the 2002 and 2008 Farm Bill, created and managed by USDA to increase the development, purchase, and use of bio-based products via two initiatives: procurement preferences by federal agencies and their contractors, and voluntary product certification and labeling for consumers. Site includes a searchable catalogue database of bio-based products.
Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) and Affiliated Programs
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program (EERE) focuses on energy efficiency solutions for homes, buildings, manufacturing, and government applications. In addition, the program offers current renewables and transportation- related strategies, guidance, and resources.
Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps agencies save energy, taxpayer dollars, and demonstrate leadership with responsible, cleaner energy choices. The product recommendations and other useful tips help users identify the most efficient equipment for offices and facilities.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Affiliated Programs
Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines (CPG) recommends minimum recycled-content levels for dozens of products. U.S. EPA has also developed a suite of tools to help facilitate EPP, including a database listing that includes contract language, specifications, and policies created by federal, state and local governments,; vendor lists of product brands that meet federal EPP standards, and EPP updates, guidance documents, fact sheets, and case studies.
Design for the Environment (DfE) was launched by the EPA in 1995, with a mission to reduce risk to people and the environment by finding ways to prevent pollution by working in partnership with industry, environmental groups, and academia. Because the DfE certification program reviews every chemical ingredient regardless of percentage in the formulation, recognition by DfE ensures that the product does not contain highly toxic ingredients that could be masked by dilution. Additionally, DfE supplements the list of chemicals of concern (e.g., carcinogen lists) with the expertise of U.S. EPA scientists who can make scientific determinations on chemicals not already reviewed by an authoritative body. Other chemicals may pose similar toxicity hazards because of structural similarity to a known problem chemical. U.S. EPA’s DfE Safer Chemistry certification program allows products, including cleaners, biological based products, deicers, odor removal, printer inks, and more, that it has determined to be effective and protective of health and the environment to carry its logo.
ENERGY STAR is a joint energy-efficient products program of the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. EPA, where users can find certified energy-efficient products such as light fixtures, exit signs, appliances, and office equipment, etc.
Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Program (EPP) website provides an overview of current federal EPP policy, guidance, green purchasing tools, and examples of various federal program efforts.
The Green Vehicles Guide (GVG) webpage provides procurement-oriented tools to find and compare green vehicle attributes.
Office of the Federal Environmental Executive promotes sustainability and environmental stewardship throughout federal government operations. Created by Executive Order in 1993, the Office is housed at the President’s Council on Environmental Quality, is administered by U.S. EPA, and hosts the interagency Steering Committee on Federal Sustainability.
WaterSense is a partnership program by the U.S. EPA that seeks to protect the future of the U.S. water supply by offering people a simple way to use less water with water-efficient products and services.
Federal Trade Commission - Shopping Green Web Site provides relevant trade market rules and guidance with electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR) links that deal with environmental marketing claims. It provides general consumer information and overview of green marketing claims, seals and certifications, green terminology, and standards to help identify "truth in green advertising."
Certification and Resource Organizations
EcoLogo is part of the Underwriters Laboratories (UL Environment) network of programs. EcoLogo was originally launched by the Canadian federal government in 1988, serving buyers and sellers of green products throughout the United States, Canada, and around the world. It is North America’s oldest environmental standard and certification organization, and the second oldest in the world. By setting standards and certifying products in more than one hundred and twenty categories, EcoLogo helps identify, buy, and sell environmentally preferable goods and services. On this website, users will find more than 7,000 EcoLogo-certified products from hundreds of manufacturers.
Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT) is an independent program that certifies green electronic equipment such as computers, monitors, and laptops.
GREENGUARD Certification is part of UL Environment, an Indoor Air Quality-focused business unit of UL (Underwriters Laboratories) acquired in 2011. GREENGUARD Certification improves the quality of the air in which the products are used by helping manufacturers create and buyers identify interior products and materials that have low chemical emissions.
Green Seal is a nonprofit organization that sets standards for many products such as janitorial cleaners, floor strippers, and paints, and certifies products that meet those standards.
Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) is a U.S. Green Building Council program and green building tool that addresses the entire building lifecycle recognizing best-in-class building strategies. LEED provides third-party verification of green building projects that satisfy prerequisites and earn points to achieve different levels of certification. Prerequisites and credits differ for each rating system, and teams choose the best fit for the project Based on varied points achieved, LEED offers "Certified," "Silver," "Gold," and "Platinum" levels by project type applied to categories ranging from new or existing building construction, to schools, homes, commercial interiors, and others. Points are achieved as an aggregated score from incorporating numerous green products and practices that produce environmentally measurable project outcomes.
UL Environment works to promote global sustainability, environmental health, and safety by supporting the growth and development of environmentally preferable products, services, and organizations, helping companies achieve their sustainability goals- and helping purchasers, specification writers, retailers, governments, and consumers find sustainable products.
Independent Programs, Councils, Initiatives, and Product Specific Search Engines
Alliance for Environmental Technology is an international association of chemical manufacturers dedicated to improving the environmental performance of the pulp and paper industry. Provides educational and technical resources relating to Chlorine Dioxide use in papermaking, supports the use of chlorine dioxide bleaching (also known as Elemental Chlorine-Free or ECF).
Biodegradable Products Institute (BPI) is a not-for-profit association of key individuals and groups from government, industry and academia created to educate manufacturers, legislators and consumers about the importance of science-based standards for compostable materials that biodegrade in large composting facilities. BPI promotes the use and recovery of compostable materials through municipal composting.
Carpet and Rug Institute is an industry-focused label and organization providing science-based information about carpet and rugs- from health benefits to improved air quality to care and cleaning.
Chlorine Free Products Association is an independent, not-for-profit accreditation and standard setting organization whose focus is promoting sustainable manufacturing practices, implementing advanced technologies free of chlorine chemistry, educating consumers on alternatives, and developing world markets for sustainability-produced third party certified products and services. The CFPA has no financial interest in any manufacturer or company of the products it certifies.
CleanGredients is an online database of cleaning product ingredient chemicals that provides verified information about the environmental and human health attributes of listed ingredients. CleanGredients is a project of GreenBlue®, a nonprofit that equips business with the science and resources to make products more sustainable.
Conserveatree provides expert advice on best practices resources for making sustainable paper purchasing decisions.
Environmental Defense Fund works to preserve natural systems by focusing on critical environmental problems relative to climate and energy, oceans, eco-systems, and health by partnering with private and public organizations to achieve positive environmental results.
Forest Stewardship Council certifies lumber and other building products made with sustainably harvested wood or that reduce wood consumption.
Green-e is a labeling program established by the nonprofit organization, Center for Resource Solutions, which verifies electricity that has been generated using renewable sources such as solar and wind energy.
Green Electronics Council (GEC) founded in 2005 to bring focus to the special issues of electronics and sustainability, selected by stakeholders to manage EPEAT. GEC coordinates the development of standards for the EPEAT Registry through a voluntary, multi-stakeholder process.
Institute for Local Self-Reliance hosts the Sustainable Biomaterials Collaborative, which helps purchasers, policymakers, and NGOs navigate the maze of new and emerging bio-based plastics, and provides guidance for the marketplace regarding sustainable biomaterials. Based on work for the 1992 International Workshop on Biodegradability, the concept of a Carbohydrate Economy was developed and is the current basis for their work today: the use of plant-based chemicals to replace petro-chemicals.
Institute for Supply Management leads and serves the supply management profession. It includes a network of 40,000 supply management professionals.
Product Stewardship Institute is a national, membership-based nonprofit committed to reducing the health, safety, and environmental impacts of consumer products across their lifecycles, with a strong focus on sustainable end-of-life management.
Scientific Certification Systems, Inc. (SCS Global Services) verifies third-party environmental, sustainability, and food quality certification, auditing, and testing and standards development. SCS’s goal is to identify and drive practices, policies, and processes that advance the goals of sustainable development for policy-makers, procurement officers, company decision-makers, and consumers to make informed decisions based on the highest level of environmental, ethical, and quality accountability.
State Electronics Challenge is administered by the NorthEast Recycling Council, and provides resources to assist organizations in the public sector, as well as private schools and colleges, that sign up as "Partners" to become leaders and address the challenges posed by electronics. SEC encourages state, tribal, regional, and local governments to responsibly manage office equipment by purchasing greener office equipment and reducing the impacts of those products during use, and by managing obsolete electronics in an environmentally safe way.
Sustainable Forestry Initiative is an independent, nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting sustainable forest management, working with conservation groups, local communities, resource professionals, landowners, and numerous organizations and individuals who share a passion for responsible forest management.
Sustainable Packaging Coalition is a non-profit industry working group dedicated to a more robust environmental vision for packaging.
US Composting Council is a national, non-profit trade and professional organization promoting the recycling of organic materials through composting. Their site provides various resources and links promoting composting and related sustainable practices.
International Organization for Standards (ISO) 1400 Family of Environmental Standards is responsible for international quality standards. Environmental management standard ISO 14001 is a useful approach in realizing an environmentally conscious management system. ISO 14001 provides training sessions for auditors and many articles about ISO 14001.
Blue Angel was the first environment-related label for products and services in the world. In 1978 Blue Angel set the standard for eco-friendly products and services selected by independent jury with defined criteria. The (German) Blue Angel label is awarded to products and services that from a holistic point of view, are of benefit to the environment and at the same time, meet high standards of serviceability, health, and occupational protection.
The Global Ecolabeling Network (GEN) is a non-profit association of third-party, environmental performance recognition, certification and labeling organizations founded in 1994 to improve, promote, and develop the eco-labeling of products and services.
Environment Canada is an agency responsible for coordinating Canada’s environmental policies and programs, and monitoring conservation, climate impacts, and rules impacting Canadian natural resources including flora, fauna, air, water, and soils.
Environmental Choice is New Zealand’s environmental product certification program. It has issued standards for over 300 product categories, such as flooring, paint, electricity, cleaners, office equipment, and paper products.
European Commission Environment provides guidance and a framework for Green Public Procurement (GPP) from the European perspective.
GIPPERS Guide (2002) (Ontario, Canada) is an early guide created by a Toronto area governmental forum to address environmental purchasing and its effects on waste, surprisingly relevant and similar to current approaches and programs.
Intercontinental Exchange Group, Inc. Chicago Climate Exchange is North America’s largest and longest running greenhouse gas emission reduction program. From 2003 through 2010 CCX operated as a comprehensive cap and trade program with an offsets component. In 2011 CCX launched the Chicago Climate Exchange Offsets Registry Program to register verified emission reductions based on a comprehensive set of established protocols.
Online News and Periodical Resources:
Clean Air-Cool Planet works collaboratively with campuses, communities, and corporations to develop innovative solutions aimed at reducing carbon emissions and preparing for climate change, and building support for environmentally effective and economically efficient national climate policies.
GreenBiz includes the GreenBuzz e-newsletter provides latest insights for emerging green technologies, sustainable practices and products, and business report cards, etc.
Consumer Reports provides an online database for comparing Eco-labels, products, and certifying entities. Articles cover a wide range of current and emerging sustainability-focused topics.
Eco IQ is an online magazine that supports and promotes a transition to sustainability, providing media and educational products and services, and focusing on the strategies, tactics and tools needed by leaders, educators, and advocates working for sustainability.
Environment Guardian is an online periodical resource providing current environmental issues and topics across a wide spectrum.
Environmental Paper Network provides expert guidance, tools, and current insights into the rapidly changing paper industry, including a blog, calculator, fact sheets and reports from around the world.
Green Economy Post is a blog portal that provides site visitors with green business and career information, industry news, and timely commentary with a primary focus to cover the impact of the environment, sustainability and green business on the U.S. economy.
Green Technology is a non-profit initiative designed to inform government efforts toward sustainability, providing a forum in which government officials can communicate with those in the private sector who are developing and distributing green technologies.
The Institute for Market Transformation to Sustainability (MTS) brings together a coalition of sustainable products manufacturers, environmental groups, and key state and local government leaders using market mechanisms to increase sales and market share of sustainable products. By identifying consensus protocols for sustainable products, they believe it is possible to transform manufacturing and retail practices worldwide so that by 2015, sustainable products are available in ninety percent of the global marketplace. Their stance is that sustainable products increase corporate profits while enhancing society as a whole because they are cheaper to make, have fewer regulatory constraints, less liability, can be introduced to the market quicker, and are preferred by the public.
Sustainable Industries is a magazine for sustainable business that provides news on the west coast and beyond, and contains information about products, companies, trends, and topics pertaining to sustainability.
Public Procurement & Cooperative Purchasing Resources
National Association of Educational Procurement (NAEP) is an organization of Higher Education Procurement members formed to facilitate the development, exchange and practice of effective and ethical procurement principles and techniques within higher education and associated communities, through continuing education, networking, public information and advocacy. The Sustainability micro-site provides members a number of resources including a library of case studies and topic specific member contributed information.
National Association of State Procurement Officials (NASPO) provides a Green Purchasing Guide for its members and interested public sector users for navigating sustainable purchasing resources, and reflects ongoing changes in the marketplace for various Environmentally Preferable products and services.
National Intergovernmental Purchasing Alliance Company (National IPA) is a cooperative purchasing organization of state municipal and local members. Many cooperative organizations are making sustainability an integral part of their evaluation process when selecting companies to provide products and services.
National Institute of Governmental Purchasing (NIGP) publishes Government Procurement, (GoPro) Magazine providing monthly articles of interest to government procurement professionals, including an ongoing section on sustainability issues. Current and prior issues can be found using the site menu under resources, publications.
Responsible Purchasing Network (RPN) is a member-based network of procurement stakeholders that maintains an online clearinghouse of information on EPP policies, programs, purchasing guides, reports, upcoming events, and other related resources.
Sustainable Purchasing Leadership Council (SPLC) is one of NASPO’s strategic partners. SPLC fosters a collaborative stakeholder effort between public and private sector members interested in advancing sustainable products and practices.
U.S. Communities is a cooperative purchasing organization providing a "Go-Green" program to identify green products, services, and resources primarily directed at local governments.
Recycling, Waste-related Initiatives, Links and Tools
American Petroleum Institute Re-refined Oil Products provides information and resources for recycling used motor oil to be re-refined into base stock for lubricating oils.
Earth911 provides fact-based online waste reduction ideas and resources for consumers to make informed decisions about products and low-waste lifestyle choices.
Freecycle Network is a private, nonprofit organization dedicated to providing a network material swap resource where rather than sending the materials to landfills users can search local affiliates to "give" discarded but still serviceable materials.
Global Recycling Network was established in 1994, now part of RecycleNet Corporation, and operates as part of a network of worldwide recycling websites, portals, and exchanges. It provides marketplace directories and resources to identify recycling opportunities and information for various commodity categories.
National Recycling Coalition is a national, non-profit, professional membership advocacy group. NRC’s over 6,000 members span all aspects of waste reduction, reuse, and recycling, including local recycling coordinators, state and federal regulators, corporate environmental managers, environmental educators, consumers and waste management professionals. The Coalition represents and advocates for every sector of the recycling industry on the local, state, and federal level.
Northeast Recycling Council is a non-profit organization that conducts research, hands-on projects, consulting services, training, and outreach on issues associated with source reduction, recycling, composting, environmentally preferable purchasing, and decreasing the toxicity of the solid waste stream. As part of its mission, NERC administers and supports several programs including the State Electronics Challenge and EPPnet.
Recycling at Work is a national voluntary initiative led by Keep America Beautiful, in partnership with the Alcoa Foundation as part of their Clinton Global Initiative Commitment. The initiative challenges businesses, government agencies, schools, hospitals and other institutions to commit to increase workplace recycling by 10 percent. By taking the pledge and becoming a Pledge Partner, businesses and organizations can access special recycling bin discounts, free tools, and other resources to help them increase recycling, encourage employee participation, and earn recognition for their actions.
The Green Grid Association is a 501(c)6 non-profit, open industry consortium of end-users, policy makers, technology providers, facility architects, and utility companies that works to improve the resource efficiency of information technology and data centers throughout the world. The Green Grid seeks to unite global industry efforts, create a common set of metrics, and develop technical resources and educational tools to further its goals.
Basel Action Network is an organization focused on confronting the global environmental injustice and economic inefficiency of toxic trade (toxic wastes, products and technologies) and its impacts, including the issues of environmental justice at a macro level, preventing disproportionate and unsustainable dumping of the world’s toxic waste and pollution on the poorest global residents.
Fair Trade USA is dedicated to fair trade and equitable value/exchange rates practices. Fair Trade USA maintains a Fair Trade label issued to companies that import products such as coffee, tea, chocolate and rice that have been manufactured and sold under fair and safe working conditions.
Green for All is an organization dedicated to improving the lives of vulnerable Americans through a clean energy economy through collaboration with business, government, labor, and grassroots communities to increase quality jobs and opportunities in the green industry.
StEP Initiative was developed in 2004, founded on scientific assessments and incorporates a comprehensive view of the social, environmental and economic aspects of e-waste. StEP conducts research on the entire life cycle of electrical and electronic equipment and their corresponding global supply, process and material flows, and seeks to foster safe and eco and energy-efficient reuse and recycling practices from a socially responsible perspective.
SweatFree Communities covers issues relative to manufacturing, trade, workers, and fair labor wages.
Sustainable Leadership, Progressive Programs
American Colleges and Universities Climate Commitment is a consortium of college and university leadership committed to reducing GHG and global warming by embracing a joint resolution to integrate sustainable practices into their operations as they educate students to develop environmental leadership and policies that address critical, systemic global challenges, enabling them to benefit from the economic opportunities that will arise as a result of their solutions.
California DGS Procurement Division created a Best Practices Manual for EPP in 2007, (later transformed into a Buying Green Website). The Manual describes how to find "Best Value" through Environmentally Preferable Purchasing," and provides a comprehensive framework of policies, practices, purchasing specifications and contracts relative to procurement for product categories such as building supplies, office supplies, automotive, office equipment, paper products, cleaning supplies, and more.
EPPnet hosted by the Northeast Recycling Council is a subscriber listserv that links federal, state, and local environmental officials and private procurement specialists charged with purchasing green products and services and developing policies for the procurement of these products. EPPnet is intended to provide subscribers with quick access to information, such as availability of product specifications, suppliers of particular products, pricing information, and strategies to achieve recycled product procurement goals and federal procurement policies. Private suppliers are precluded from joining the listserv.
King County, WA is a municipal leader in environmental purchasing that has developed specifications for a wide variety of recycled, energy-efficient, and low-toxicity products. The County issues periodic bulletins when new environmentally preferable products are added to County contracts and an annual report publicizing its successes.
Portland, Oregon provides website sustainable living resources for residents on a wide variety of topic areas.
Rutgers University is an early leader in developing research relative to the interplay between products, energy, waste, economics, and supply chain. Rutgers continues to develop and support sustainable measures and policies that influence public and private sector decision makers.
NAGPI (North American Green Purchasing Initiative- Eco-Eval) designed to help professional purchasers evaluate their organization’s environmental purchasing initiatives and identify opportunities for improvement.
The ULS (Use Less Stuff) Reportis a newsletter committed to issues of source reduction and waste prevention, provides "CalcuLess" Environmental Impact Analyzer.
Twelve Steps to Starting a Program
The key to a successful green purchasing program is broad based buy-in to the program. Despite best intentions, the majority of us are inherently resistant to change. To get a program up and running, it is desirable to have a statement of intent issued from an executive level. Prior to the issuance of such a statement it is important to have a structure in place that will allow for immediate action.
Talk to your suppliers about the recycled content or other environmentally preferable alternatives that may be available. Many large manufacturers across various industries advertise the fact that they are implementing sustainable initiatives throughout their operations. Requesting SPs from your suppliers should not be a new idea, if it is, you may want to shop around for another supplier.
Agricultural Bio-Based Products means commercial or industrial products that utilize agricultural crops or residues (other than those used for food or feed) but does not include products made from forest-related materials. Products derived from renewable resources, including fiber crops such as industrial hemp and kenaf, chemical extracts from oilseeds, nuts, fruits, and vegetables, agricultural residues such as wheat straw and corn stover, and wood wastes generated from processing and manufacturing operations are considered plant-based products. Terms such as "agri-based," "bio-based," or "naturally-derived" are often used when referring to plant-based products. These products stand in contrast to those made from extracted fossil fuels and other less renewable resources.
Air Pollution means a substance in the air that can cause harm to humans and the environment. Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. In addition, they may be natural or man-made. (See also, "Emissions")
Air Quality Index or AQI means U.S. EPA’s National Ambient Air Quality Standard. The AQI reflects evolving health effects information and is reviewed and adjusted every five years as required by the Clean Air Act (U.S. 1990). The AQI is a function of measured pollutant concentrations and is measured daily by most large population centers. It is based on mathematical formulae, with the concentrations resulting in color-categorizing regional air quality as Good, Moderate, Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups, Unhealthy, Very Unhealthy, or Hazardous. See http://www.airnow.gov/. See also RACQ.
Alternative Energy means energy derived from such sources as solar, wind, geothermal (heat from the Earth’s interior), biomass, and hydropower (water or wave).
Bio-accumulation means the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides or other organic chemicals in an organism. Repeated exposure even to very low levels of toxins can be lethal over time.
Biodegradable means the ability of a material to be broken down into simpler compounds by microorganisms or other decomposers. Many different definitions and tests for biodegradability exist. Definitions of the different tests are available from the U.S. EPA, such as "Reliable scientific evidence that the entire product or package will completely break down and return to nature, i.e., decompose into elements found in nature within a reasonably short period of time after customary disposal" (16 C.F.R. § 260.7 (b)).
Biodiesel means an alternative fuel derived from biological sources. There are two kinds of biodiesel: Waste Vegetable Oil (WVO) and Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO). WVO is made from used vegetable oil that can be burned in a diesel-burning engine, often from fast-food restaurants or cafeterias. Making WVO into fuel involves a simple conversion process called trans-esterification. SVO is biodiesel made directly from plants like soy, switch-grass, flaxseed or rapeseed or even algae. SVO has been criticized as a culprit of driving up food prices, and for pollution caused by pesticides and herbicides used to grow crops. Biodiesel is considered cleaner than petroleum-based diesel as it releases less carbon monoxide, aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter (soot). Common sources of bio-fuel include corn, soybeans, flaxseed and rapeseed.
Bio-diversity means the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or even the entire earth as a bio-system. Bio-diversity is often considered a measure of the health of biological systems. Man-made products can adversely impact such systems by poor management or practices, including the introduction of harmful pollutants to soils, air, and water. (See also "Bio-accumulation").
Bio-fuel means any fuel created from plants, including methane produced from plants or landfills, biodiesel, ethanol, wood or wood waste, and others.
Carbon Footprint means the amount of greenhouse gases and specifically carbon dioxide, emitted directly or indirectly, that is caused by an organization, event, product, or person, during a given period.
Carbon Neutral means the emerging international trend that describes products, operations, and activities that have had their emissions calculated and reduced wherever possible. The remaining carbon dioxide emissions are then "offset" through credits that fund renewable, emission-free energy projects such as wind farms and solar installations. The carbon offset market allows businesses to recognize and financially support the shift from fossil fuel to renewable energy. The exchange or offset purchase of clean or renewable energy credits from sources such as wind or solar power is a means of financially supporting alternative clean power technologies to the level that the company otherwise uses in the manufacture of goods from non-renewable and polluting sources. Think of this as a transitional "paying it forward" mechanism that provides corporate and private funding sources for the development of cleaner technologies at levels close or equal to the current resource or power consumption levels/ pollution caused by using current technology.
Example: "Products are made carbon neutral within production processes by offsetting thermal manufacturing emissions with Verified Emission Reduction Credits (V.E.R.C.) and the emissions from purchased electricity with Green-e certified wind-power Renewable Energy Credits (R.E.C.)." Several emerging businesses "broker" these "carbon reduction credits" between emerging clean energy projects (seeking funds), and emission generating businesses seeking to offset their current pollution-generating, energy consumption practices.
Carbon Offset means the specific quantity of GHG emission reductions (i.e.. a ton of carbon dioxide absorbed or avoided) from a project-based activity that is purchased in order to negate or diminish the impact of the recipient’s GHG emissions. When you purchase an offset, you alone have the right to all associated claims about the environmental benefits it embodies. An offset is to be regarded as real environmental commodity, and not a donation or investment in a future project. Green-e Climate Certified offsets are sourced from verified projects and pass stringent qualifications to ensure environmental quality. The purchase of a certified offset helps stimulate market demand for emission-reduction projects that can help mitigate the effect of climate change.
Carbon Trading means any trading system designed to offset carbon emissions from one activity such as burning fossil fuel to create electricity, driving, or flying, with another that is more efficient or less polluting.
Chlorine means a chemical used to disinfect water and as a bleaching agent for many cleaning and paper products. The process of making chlorine creates an extremely dangerous and damaging bi-product called dioxin.
Chlorine-free generally means paper products processed using minimal chlorine or chlorine derived processes.
Climate Change means the change in long-term weather patterns, where climate is measured by the long-term average of a region’s weather. Based on the type of change, climates can become warmer or colder, and annual amounts of rainfall or snowfall can increase or decrease. (Also see "Global Warming")
Cost Analysis means comparative pricing utilizing Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) or Total Cost of Ownership (TCO), as it relates to EPP.
Dioxins and Furans mean a group of chemical compounds that are classified as persistent, bio-accumulative, and toxic by the U.S. EPA.
Durability means the ability of a product to be reused for its intended purpose for a greater period than the average useful product life-span of other similar products, without significant degradation.
Durable Good means a product that can last for a relatively long time and yields service or utility over time rather than being completely used up when used once. Durable goods, non-durable goods, and services together constitute economic consumption. (See also "Soft Goods" or "Non-durable Goods")
Eco-label means the term for a seal or logo indicating that a product has met a set of environmental or social standards.
Efficient means a product or service that has the least environmental impact on resources:
Electronic Waste or E-waste generally means unwanted electronic equipment, such as computers, VCRs, stereos, copiers, cell phones, fax machines, and other energy-consuming appliances containing circuitry (such as televisions and refrigerators) that although at the end of their useful life, sometimes can be salvaged, reused, refurbished, resold, or recycled. Whether discarded, surplus, obsolete, or broken, E-waste is produced by households, businesses, governments, and industries, and frequently contains such hazardous materials as lead and mercury, cadmium, beryllium, and brominated flame retardants. The processing of electronic waste in developing countries causes serious health and pollution problems. Especially in developed countries recycling and disposal of e-waste involves significant risk to workers and communities, and great care must be taken to avoid unsafe exposure in recycling operations and leaching of materials such as heavy metals from incinerator ashes and landfills.
Energy Efficiency means the use of less energy to accomplish the same task. Using less energy means less air pollution and lower costs. To save energy in your home, you can use weather stripping, a water heater blanket, or compact fluorescent light bulbs. Also when shopping for household appliances, look for the Energy Star label to find appliances that use less energy and lower electricity costs.
Emissions means the introduction of chemicals, particulates, biological materials, or other harmful materials into the Earth’s atmosphere, and possibly causing disease, damage to food crops, the natural or built environment, or death to humans. (See also Air Pollution and Air Quality Index)
ENERGY STAR® means the U.S. EPA’s energy efficiency product labeling program.
Environmental Labeling means any printed label on a package or product that provides environmental information regarding recycled content, recyclability, and reduced packaging, etc.
Environmental Policy means an organization’s overall aims and principles of action with respect to the environment, including compliance with all applicable legal requirements relating to the environment and the organization’s commitment to continual improvement of its environmental performance.
Environmentally Preferable Product or Sustainable Product (SP) means a product or service that has a lesser or reduced effect on human health and the environment, when compared with competing products or services that serve the same purpose. Such products or services may include products that contain recycled content, minimize waste, conserve energy or water, and reduce the amount of toxics disposed or consumed. ("See Sustainable Product (SP) or Environmentally Preferable Product")
Environment, Health, and Safety (EHS) means management practices that have two general objectives: the prevention of incidents or accidents that might result from abnormal operating conditions, and the reduction of adverse effects that result from normal operating conditions. For example, fire, explosion, and the release of harmful substances into the environment or the work area must be prevented. Also action must be taken to reduce a company’s environmental impact under normal operating conditions, such as reducing the company’s carbon footprint, and preventing workers from developing work-related diseases. Regulatory requirements play an important role in both approaches and consequently, EHS managers must identify and understand relevant EHS regulations, and the implications of which must be communicated to top management (e.g., the board of directors) so the company can implement suitable measures. Organizations based in the United States are subject to EHS regulations in the Code of Federal Regulations, particularly CFR 29, 40, and 49. Still, EHS management is not limited to legal compliance and companies are encouraged to do more than is required by law.
Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) means the purchase of a product that has a lesser or reduced negative effect or increased positive effect on human health and the environment, when compared with competing products that serve the same purpose. Incorporating EPP in the procurement process considers raw materials acquisition, production, fabrication, manufacturing, packaging, distribution, reuse, operation, maintenance, and disposal of the product. This term includes sourcing recyclable products, recycled products, and reusable products.
Environmental Product Declarations (EPD’s) means a third-party verified, internationally recognized, single comprehensive disclosure of a product’s environmental impacts throughout its entire life cycle. ISO 14025 defines the requirements for an EPD, and resembles a product nutrition label. The process requires four steps: 1) Identification or development of a set of Product Category Rules (PCR’s), 2) Conducting a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), 3) Third Party verification of LCA, and 4) Creating the EPD.
Environmental Profile Data Sheet (EPDS) means the information representing credible and comprehensive environmental information on the environmental burdens associated with the life cycle of products. The environmental profile is based on a holistic consideration of the raw material acquisition and manufacturing stages of a product’s life cycle, and incorporates additional tools such as risk assessment and environmental management systems. As a reporting mechanism, the EPDS provides a standard, cost-effective, understandable, and credible method of reporting environmental information. It is based on sound science, life cycle considerations, and third-party independent verification for information related to national and international issues and concerns.
Ethanol means the bio-fuel most commonly derived from the fermentation of corn into alcohol. New methods of transforming straw and other plant wastes into ethanol are making the production process even greener.
Electric Vehicle or EV means the term used to describe an all-Electric Vehicle. Power for these vehicles currently relies on batteries recharged primarily by plugging into an available electric power source. This technology has seen increasing innovation that has led to improved mileage range between recharging. Typically, most EV cars are limited to short-range commuting options of 100-200 miles between recharging, and are usually found in higher density urban settings with available recharging infrastructure. (See also "Hybrid Automobiles")
Extended Producer Responsibility/Manufacturer’s Responsibility means a system whereby the producers or distributors/retailers of a packaged consumer product assume primary responsibility for the management and recycling of a product’s packaging.
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) means plants and animals that through bioengineering are genetically altered to include traits that are not found in nature. Some corn, canola, cotton, and soy are commonly found GMOs. There are no GMO labeling requirements in the United States.
Global Warming means the increase in the near-surface temperature of the Earth. The warming (and cooling) of the Earth has occurred in the distant past as the result of natural influences, but the term is most currently used to refer to the warming predicted to occur as a result of increased emissions of greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide and methane, that make the Earth warmer by trapping energy inside the atmosphere. Scientists have recently suggested that the Earth’s surface has warmed by about 1 degree Fahrenheit in the past 140 years. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recently concluded that increased concentrations of greenhouse gases are causing an increase in the Earth’s surface temperature, while increased concentrations of sulfate aerosols have led to relative cooling in some regions, generally concentrated over and downwind of heavily industrialized areas. Fossil fuels used in the production of electricity contribute to two-thirds of these gases found in the atmosphere, which in turn causes changes in climate. A warmer Earth may lead to changes in rainfall patterns, a rise in sea level, and a wide range of impacts on plants, wildlife, and humans.
Green Chemistry means the reduction or elimination of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture, and application of chemical products.
Green-e (Green Electricity) means the nation’s first voluntary certification and verification program for green electricity products. The criteria require that at least fifty percent of the supply is generated from the sun, water, wind, burning of wastes (biomass), or geothermal heat from the earth. In addition, in the use of any traditional fuel, emissions of sulfur dioxide, (which causes acid rain), nitrogen oxide (which causes smog) and carbon dioxide (which causes climate change) must be lower than average. The companies that receive the Green-e designation must agree to an annual audit to ensure they have purchased a satisfactory amount of renewable power: http://www.green-e.org. The Green-e Standard is at http://www.green-e.org/ipp/standard_for_marketers.html
Green Public Procurement (GPP) means the European Union term for Sustainability-focused public purchasing (similar to EPP).
Greenhouse Effect means the effect produced as greenhouse gases allow incoming solar radiation to pass through the Earth’s atmosphere, without allowing most of the outgoing infrared radiation from the surface and lower atmosphere from escaping into outer space. This process occurs naturally and has kept the Earth’s temperature about 60 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than it would otherwise be. Current life on Earth could not be sustained without the natural greenhouse effect.
Greenhouse Gases (GHG) means any of the gases in the Earth’s atmosphere whose absorption of solar radiation is responsible for the greenhouse effect. Changes in the concentration of certain greenhouse gases due to human activity such as fossil fuel burning increase the risk of global climate change. Greenhouse gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halogenated fluorocarbons, ozone, perfluorinated carbons, and hydrofluorocarbons.
Green-wash means the act of misleading consumers regarding the environmental practices of a company or the environmental benefits of a product or service.
Grid means the network of wires and cables which transport electricity from a power plant to your home.
Hazardous Waste means any refuse, sludge, or other waste materials or combinations of waste materials in solid, semisolid, liquid, or contained gaseous form that because of its quantity, concentration, or chemical, physical, or infectious characteristics and when improperly treated, stored, transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed, may cause or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible or incapacitating reversible illness, or pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment. Categories of hazardous waste materials include explosives, flammables, oxidizers, poisons, irritants, and corrosives. Hazardous waste does not include source, special nuclear, or by-product material as defined by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954.
High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) means a type of plastic that is commonly used in milk and water jugs.
Hybrid Automobiles (and related terms) means automobiles that are part electric-part internal combustion hybrids that represent a green step forward for the automobile. Better mileage, lower emissions, better performance, and lower fuel bills make hybrids a great idea for both people and planet.
Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) means the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants. IAQ can be affected by gases such as carbon monoxide, radon, VOCs, particulates, microbial contaminants such as mold and bacteria, or any mass or energy stressor that can induce adverse health conditions. Source control, filtration and the use of ventilation to dilute contaminants are the primary methods for improving indoor air quality in most buildings. Building materials including carpeting and plywood emit formaldehyde (H2CO) gas, and paint, solvents, and cleaning supplies can give off VOCs. Lead paint can degenerate into dust and be inhaled. Limiting toxic substances in purchased materials that will enter an indoor environment can improve IAQ.
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) means an ecosystem-based strategy that focuses on long-term prevention of pests or their damage through a combination of techniques such as biological control, habitat manipulation, modification of cultural practices, and use of resistant varieties. Pesticides are used only after monitoring indicates they are needed according to established guidelines, and treatments are made with the goal of removing only the target organism. Pest control materials are selected and applied in a manner that minimizes risks to human health, beneficial and non-target organisms, and the environment. This pest management strategy includes using traps to monitor infestations, using better sanitation practices and beneficial insects to control the identified pests, and applying pesticides so that they pose the least possible hazard, and are used only as a last resort when other control methods have failed.
International Green Construction Code (IGCC) means the comprehensive set of requirements intended to reduce the negative impact of buildings on the natural environment. It is a document that can be readily used by manufacturers, design professionals, and contractors, and was created to be administered by code officials and adopted by governmental units as a tool to drive green building beyond the market segment that has been transformed by voluntary rating systems. It was developed by the International Code Council (ICC) in association with cooperating sponsors ASTM International (ASTM) and the American Institute of Architects (AIA). Other organizations indicating their support include the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), producers of the LEED green building rating systems, and the Green Building Initiative (the GBI), producers of the Green Globes green building rating system.
Kilowatt-Hour means the standard unit of measure for electricity. One kilowatt-hour is equal to 1,000 watt-hours.
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED™) means the system developed by the U.S. Green Building Council designed for rating new and existing commercial, institutional, and high-rise residential buildings that assigns a point rating scale for energy efficiency, water efficiency, EPP, materials management, and other factors related to sustainability in design and systems elements.
Lead-free means the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive or RoHS that was adopted in February 2003 by the European Union. The RoHS directive took effect on July 1, 2006, and is required to be enforced and become law in each member state. This directive restricts the use of six hazardous materials in the manufacture of various types of electronic and electrical equipment. It is closely linked with the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE) 2002/96/EC which sets collection, recycling and recovery targets for electrical goods, and is part of a legislative initiative to solve the problem of huge amounts of toxic e-waste.
Life Cycle means the consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system from raw material acquisition or generation of natural resources, to its final disposition.
Life-cycle Assessment and Life-cycle Analysis mean the comprehensive examination of a product’s environmental impacts throughout its lifetime, including new material extraction, transportation, manufacturing, energy footprint, use, and disposal. It further means the compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle. These terms differs from a Total Cost of Ownership or Life Cycle Costing assessment, which focuses on the lifetime costs of acquiring, operating, and disposal.
Life-cycle Costing means the procurement evaluation technique that determines the total cost of acquisition, operation, maintenance, and disposal of items being acquired.
Life-cycle Design means an approach for designing more ecologically and economically sustainable product systems, and integrating environmental requirements into the earliest stages of design. In life cycle design, environmental, performance, cost, cultural and legal requirements are balanced. (The U.S. EPA Introduction to Environmental Accounting June 1995).
Life-cycle Impact Assessment means the phase of life cycle assessment aimed at understanding and evaluating the magnitude and significance of the potential environmental impacts of a product system.
Low VOCs means products with a smaller amount of chemical compounds that are typically found in industrial solvents such as petroleum fuels, paints, paint thinners, and dry cleaning agents, that have been positively correlated with better indoor air quality. Using products with low VOCs is especially important for chemically sensitive individuals.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) means the compilation of information on a given product’s chemicals, health and physical hazards, exposure limits, and necessary precautions for use. MSDSSEARCH NATIONAL REPOSITORY: http://www.msdssearch.com/
Megawatt means one thousand kilowatts, or 1 million watts; standard measure of electric power plant generating capacity.
Municipal Solid Waste means any garbage, refuse, and other solid waste from residential, commercial, industrial, and community activities that the generator of the waste aggregates for collection. Municipal Solid Waste does not include auto hulks, street sweepings, ash, construction debris, mining waste, sludge, tree and agricultural wastes, tires, lead-acid batteries, motor and vehicle fluids and filters, and other materials collected, processed, and disposed of in separate waste streams.
Net Metering means the method of crediting customers for electricity generated on site in excess of the customer’s own electricity consumption. Customers with their own generation offset the electricity they would have purchased from their utility.
Ordering Frequency primarily means the recurring instance of product inventory replenishment. Depending on end user storage capacity, this can be a valuable sourcing strategy that reduces the inefficient cycle of "convenience purchasing" (frequent ordering, shipping, handling, redistribution, invoicing, and payment processing). Reduced ordering frequency not only offers the opportunity to reduce overall costs, but also the chance to improve air quality by reducing transportation GHG effects.
Organic Food means food produced by farmers who emphasize the use of renewable resources and the conservation of soil and water to enhance environmental quality for future generations, as defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Thus "organic" refers to a specific set of standards used throughout the entire process of food production. Food that is certified organic comes from farms that have been inspected and approved by a third-party agent under the USDA’s guidelines. Organic certification prohibits the use of most conventional pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, sewage sludge, bioengineering, and irradiation (also called ionizing radiation or "cold pasteurization"). Organic meat, eggs, poultry, and dairy come from animals not treated with antibiotics or growth hormones. Certified organic food is, by definition, free from GMOs. Also, any handling or processing of organic food must be done by certified companies. For example, organic beer is made from certified-organic malted barley, hops, and yeast, ingredients grown without the use of synthetic pesticides, herbicides, or fertilizers.
Organic Pest Management means the pest management solution that does not introduce adverse materials or elements to the environment that could be considered harmful to humans, plants, or wildlife. The system prohibits the use and application of toxic chemical pesticides and strives to prevent pest problems through the application of natural organic horticultural and maintenance practices. All organic pest control products must be toxin or chemical free. Refer to California Certified Organic Foods (CCOF) for effective products and practices not using conventional chemicals.
Passive Solar means the process of using or capturing energy from the sun to heat water or for other heating purposes.
Persistent Organic Pollutants or POPs means organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. They therefore are capable of long-range transport, bio-accumulate in human and animal tissue, bio-magnify in food chains, and having potentially significant impacts on human health and the environment.
Polyethylene Terephthalate, PET or PETE means a thermoplastic polymer resin used to make soft drink bottles and other kinds of food containers. PET is also used to make fabric, food, and other liquid containers. (See also, "resin identification code")
Photovoltaic or PV means the process of using technology to convert sunlight into electricity, and is often referred to as solar electric.
Plant-based Products means products derived from renewable resources, including fiber crops such as industrial hemp and kenaf, chemical extracts from oilseeds, nuts, fruits, and vegetables, agricultural residues such as wheat straw and corn stove, and wood wastes generated from processing and manufacturing operations. Terms such as "agri-based," "bio-based" or "naturally-derived" are often used when referring to plant-based products. These products stand in contrast to those made from extracted fossil fuels and other less renewable resources.
Pollution Prevention means activity that diminishes or reduces the use, generation, or release of hazardous waste, toxic pollutants, hazardous substances, fugitive emissions, pollutants, or contaminants into the environment or the entering into the waste stream prior to recycling, treatment, or disposal, and thereby reduces hazards to public health and environmental.
Post-consumer Content means the manufacturing of a new product using materials that have already served their intended uses, and have been separated for recycling to be used as a raw material. In paper products, post-consumer content is a finished material made from paper that has been used by end consumers, been diverted from landfill and reconstituted into post-consumer recycled fiber in a recycling mill.
Post-Industrial Materials means materials generated by manufacturers or product converters, such as trimmings, overruns, and obsolete products that are incorporated back into the manufacturing process of the same or different products.
Pre-consumer Materials means materials and manufacturing by-products that would be destined for disposal had they not been diverted from the waste stream for reuse or recycling (e.g., paper trimmings left over after cutting envelopes from paper that are sold to another manufacturer to be used to make paper products) are consider pre-consumer materials. Pre-consumer material does not include materials and by-products generated by and commonly used in an original manufacturing process. (See also "Industrial Scrap") For paper, pre-consumer/post-industrial recycled content means material or by-products generated after a paper product is manufactured but before it reaches the end-consumer (e.g., mill ends or products with finish flaws that aren’t sold at the store).
Post-consumer Materials means materials generated by consumer, business, or institutional sources that have served their intended use or completed their lifecycle and would be destined for disposal had they not been diverted from the waste stream for recycling (e.g., paper placed in a recycling bin by a consumer/end-user that is collected and re-pulped to make new paper products) are considered post-consumer materials.
Product Stewardship means an approach to product and materials management designed to improve resource utilization efficiency and promoting waste minimization. Product stewardship programs seek to establish responsibility and to apportion the costs of waste management among the specific participants in the various stages of a product’s life cycle. In this way, rather than being left to the consumer or the municipality, the full environmental costs of a product are internalized and end-of-life product management responsibility is clearly assigned to either the manufacturer, the retailer, or to other specific participants in the product life cycle.
RCRA means Section 6002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 that directs the U.S. EPA to designate items that are or can be produced with recovered materials, and recommends practices for buying these items. Among other things, RCRA Section 6002 also provides criteria for the U.S. EPA to consider when selecting items for designation, and requires procuring agencies to establish affirmative procurement programs for designated items.
Reclaimed means the specialized process of cleaning and refurbishing an item for reuse. For example, carpet broadloom and tiles can be cleaned and refurbished to replace overly worn segments.
Recovered Material means fragments of products or finished products of a manufacturing process that has converted a resource into a commodity of real economic value, and includes pre-consumer and post-consumer material (for example, scrap material collected for remanufacturing into recycled finished products), but does not include excess resources of the manufacturing process. U.S. EPA’s definition for "recovered", which is most widely accepted, does not include scrap such as paper created in the initial papermaking process, but it does include scrap created in a mill after the paper comes off the paper machine.
Recyclable Product means a product that can be diverted from the solid waste stream for use as a raw material in the manufacture of another product after its intended end use, and preferably one of higher value uses.
Recycled Content means the percentage of recovered material, including pre-consumer and postconsumer materials, in a product. (The amount of material by weight "collected, separated or otherwise recovered from the solid waste stream for use in the form of raw materials, in the manufacture or assembly of a new package or product (16 C.F.R. § 260.7 (d))."
Recycled Content is the amount of pre and post-consumer recovered material introduced as a feed stock in a material production process, usually expressed as a percentage.
Recyclability means the potential of a material to be diverted from solid waste stream for the purpose of recycling and reprocessing into a new product.
Recycling is a series of activities that includes collecting materials that would otherwise be considered waste, and sorting and processing recyclables into raw materials such as fibers, and manufacturing raw materials into new products. (http://www2.epa.gov/recycle)
Refurbished means the process of restoring a product by cleaning, repairing, recovering, and reusing the item for its original intended use, while maximizing the reuse of its original materials.
Remanufacturing is the dismantling of a spent product to clean and repair the product for the same use. Replacement parts must be new after-market parts that meet the same specifications as original equipment manufactured parts.
Renewable Energy means Green-e power. The non-profit organization Center for Resource Solutions established the Green-e Renewable Electricity Certification Program to encourage consumer confidence in buying green electricity.
Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) means tradable, non-tangible energy commodities that evidence that 1 megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity was generated from an eligible renewable energy resource. These certificates are sold separately from commodity electricity, can be sold, traded, or bartered, and represent the environmental attributes of the power produced from renewable energy projects. RECs incentivize carbon-neutral renewable energy by providing a production subsidy to electricity generated from renewable sources.
Resin Identification Code means the internationally used resin identification coding system found on plastics to identify the polymer type, as developed by the Society of the Plastics Industry (SPI). The primary purpose of the codes is to allow efficient separation of different polymer types for recycling. Click Here for more detail.
Reuse means the use a product more than once, either for the same purpose or for a different purpose. Reusing is preferable to recycling because the item does not need to be reprocessed before it can be used again.
Reusable Product means any product designed to be used many times for the same or other purposes without additional processing except for specific requirements such as cleaning, painting, or minor repairs.
Shared Product Responsibility means the new trend in waste and pollution prevention policies that seek to expand the assignment of responsibility for waste management of packaging and spent consumer goods beyond the producer and consumer to include all participants along the life cycle of a product (including designers, suppliers, manufacturers, fillers, distributors and disposers, as well as consumers and governments).
Soft Goods or Non-durable Goods mean those consumable goods that are used-up when used once, or that have a lifespan of less than 3 years. Examples of nondurable goods include food, cleaning products, fuel, office supplies, packaging and containers, paper and paper products, personal products, rubber, plastics, textiles, clothing and footwear.
Source Reduction means products that result in a net reduction of the generation of waste compared to their previous or alternate versions, and includes durable, reusable and remanufactured products, products with no or reduced toxic constituents, and products marketed with minimal, or reduced, packaging. Examples are activities that prevent waste at its source, reducing the amount of material used or the toxicity of the material used to accomplish any task, the reuse of a product in its original form, and the use of repairable, refillable, or durable products that result in a longer useful life.
Specification means the concise statement containing a set of requirements to be satisfied by a product, material, or process that may also indicate the procedures to determine whether the requirements are satisfied. As far as practicable, the requirement should be expressed in terms appropriate to the desired end result.
Standard means a characteristic or set of characteristics for an item that is generally accepted by the manufacturers and users of the item as a required characteristic for all such items.
Supply Chain means the all-inclusive set of links from raw materials to customers, including extraction, transportation, fuels, and manufacturing. Examples include networks of retailers, distributors, transporters, storage facilities and suppliers that participate in the sale, delivery, and production of a particular product.
Surplus means any amount remaining after satisfying need or use. (Refer to State Surplus Program at https://www.coloradoci.com/ for information on accessing State of Colorado surplus.)
Sustainability means the meeting of the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to fulfill their own needs.
Includes the "Triple Bottom Line":
Sustainability Certification means compliance with a rigorous set of environmentally preferable criteria designed to meet specified performance and quality requirements similar to traditional, non-green counterparts. Certification is not a one-time activity, as companies are expected to commit to annual compliance monitoring, and to work towards continuous improvement.
U.S. EPA’s requirements for third-party certification:
Sustainable Product (SP) or Environmentally Preferable Product means a product or service that has a lesser or reduced effect on human health and the environment, when compared with competing products or services that serve the same purpose. Such products or services may include those which contain recycled content, minimize waste, conserve energy or water, and reduce the amount of toxics disposed or consumed (See "Environmentally Preferable Products or Sustainable Products (SPs)".
Sustainability Standards means standards for products, services, and companies that are based on life cycle research, developed in an open, transparent, and stakeholder-involved process. Standards provide criteria and guidelines for manufacturers, service providers, and companies to work toward sustainability and certification (see above).
Sustainable Development means the process of conducting business and commerce in a resource conservative and resource efficient manner such that operations do not compromise the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The essential elements of this trend are the promotion and maintenance of business and community development strategies that lead to a better business environment in the future, one sustained by stable, healthful communities within a clean, safe environment.
Sustainable Purchasing means the process of purchasing materials, products, and labor in a manner that reflects fiscal responsibility, social equity, and environmental stewardship.
Sustainable Reuse means sustainable when it includes social supply chain considerations and the product is:
TheThree "Rs" mean reduce, reuse, and recycle:
Third-party Certification means the scientific process by which a product, process, or service is reviewed by a reputable and unbiased auditor (third party) to verify that a set of criteria, claims or standards are being met. (See also "Sustainability Certification")
Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) means the comprehensive accounting of the total cost of ownership, including initial costs, energy and operational costs, longevity and efficacy of service, and disposal costs. TCO may also include Life-cycle Assessment or Life-cycle Analysis for environmental impact. (See also "LCA")
Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) means the publicly available U.S. EPA database that contains information on toxic chemical releases and other waste management activities reported annually by certain covered industry groups as well as federal entities: http://www.epa.gov/tri/index.htm.
Tree-Free means products that are made from agricultural residue or agricultural fibers.
Validation means the confirmation by an environmental verifier that the information and data in the organization’s environmental statement and performance report are reliable, credible, correct, and meet certain requirements.
Verification means the conformity assessment process carried out by an environmental verifier to demonstrate that an organization’s environmental policy, management system, and audit procedure fulfills certain requirements.
Virgin Products means products that are made with 100% new raw materials and contain no recycled materials.
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) means chemical compounds containing carbon (with exceptions) that under normal conditions readily evaporates or vaporizes (e.g., chemicals that evaporate readily at room temperature). Typically, VOCs are industrial solvents often found in petroleum fuels, paints, paint thinners, and dry cleaning agents. The most common VOCs are emitted by consumer products such as cleaning solvents, paints, and printers in an indoor environment. Many building materials such as paints, adhesives, wall boards, and ceiling tiles, new furnishings, wall coverings, and office equipment such as photocopy machines can also off-gas VOC particles into the air.
Waste Disposal means the act of getting rid of unwanted items and material having no value in excess of their basic material content. Mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) is typically disposed of at landfills, mixed-waste composting facilities, or energy recovery facilities.
Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment or WEEE means the European Union directive adopted into law in February 2003 that sets collection, recycling, and recovery targets for electrical goods, and is part of a legislative initiative to solve the problem of huge amounts of toxic e-waste. The directive imposes the responsibility for the disposal of waste electrical and electronic equipment on the manufacturers of such equipment. Those companies should establish an infrastructure for collecting WEEE, in such a way that "Users of electrical and electronic equipment from private households should have the possibility of returning WEEE at least free of charge". Also, the companies are compelled to use the collected waste in an ecologically-friendly manner, either by ecological disposal or by reuse/refurbishment of the collected WEEE. (See also "E-waste")
Waste Management means the collection, transport, processing, recycling, or disposal and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is also carried out to recover resources from discarded materials.
Waste Prevention is an activity that prevents waste at its source, which includes reducing the amount of material used or the toxicity of the material used to accomplish any task, reuse of a product in its original form, and use of repairable, refillable, or durable products that result in a longer useful life. (See also "Zero-waste") Waste Prevention is also known as source reduction, and means any change in the design, manufacturing, purchase, or use of materials or products (including packaging) to reduce their level or toxicity before they become municipal solid waste. Waste prevention also refers to the reuse of products or materials.
Waste Reduction means preventing or decreasing the quantity of waste being generated through waste prevention, recycling, or purchasing recycled and environmentally preferable products.
WasteWise means the free, voluntary U.S. EPA program through which organizations eliminate costly municipal solid waste and select industrial wastes, benefiting their bottom line and the environment. WasteWise participants can join as partners, endorsers, or both. WasteWise helps its participants meet goals to reduce and recycle municipal solid waste and selected industrial wastes. http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/conserve/smm/wastewise/index.htm
Water-saving Products means products that are in the upper 25% of water conservation for all similar products, or at least 10% more water-conserving than the minimum level that meets federal standards.
WaterSense means the U.S. EPA partnership program that offers simple ways to use less water with water-efficient products, homes, and services. http://www.epa.gov/WaterSense
Xeri-scaping means the practice of incorporating native (indigenous) and drought-tolerant plants or naturally low or zero-water consuming methods or product design elements into outdoor landscaping that promote the most efficient, lowest use of water or energy. An environmentally conscious form of landscaping intended to conserve water or energy resources as much as possible, that uses low impact features such as drip irrigation systems, mulch, natural and hard-scape materials (rock, brick, and wood, etc.), and solar lighting, etc.
The Xeri-scape concept (originated by DenverWater.org) is based on seven principles:
Yard Waste means leaves, grass clippings, garden waste, weeds, shrub and tree waste that result from raking, cutting, digging, pulling or pruning activities in a yard, garden, park, whether from landscaped or natural open space environment.
Zero Waste means the philosophy that minimizes waste and resource consumption in order to conserve energy, mitigate climate change, reduce water usage, prevent toxics creation, and minimize ecosystem destruction. With almost one-third of greenhouse gas emissions attributed to the acquisition of materials, reducing consumption has the potential to significantly affect climate change. As more and more local governments and businesses commit to achieving zero waste, innovative techniques to reach this goal are being piloted across the country. From source reduction to product re-design, to reuse, to eliminating incentives for raw material extraction and land-filling, the path to zero waste requires moving beyond recycling to a more integrated and holistic resource management system.
Many states are required to award to the lowest responsive bidder. There are ways however to allow for award of green products. As an example of this, by using EPP performance specifications and non-cost factors to consider for evaluation purposes, the State of Washington is able to award EPP products and services that may be a higher purchase price than its non-EPP product and service. This will determine the lowest responsive bidder - not just the lowest bidder. Consider incorporating EPP performance specifications and non-cost evaluation factors into future solicitations.
Companies that claim breach of warranty for using remanufactured toner cartridges in their machines should be reminded of the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Improvement Act, under Title 15, Chapter 50, Section 2302:
"(c) No warrantor of a consumer product may condition his written or implied warranty of such product on the consumer’s using, in connection with such product, any article or service (other than article or service provided without charge under the tears of the warranty) which is identified by brand, trade or corporate name; except that the prohibition of this subsection may be waived by the commission if:
The manufacturer of the printer cannot void the warranty on the printer for customer use of a cartridge or refill kit manufactured by someone other than the printer manufacturer. This prohibition includes the use of compatible cartridges, and remanufactured cartridges. This is to help prevent against manufacturer monopolies and unfair pricing practices.
The Sherman and Clayton Antitrust Law also provides precedent:
The Supreme Court held that IBM could not threaten customers with termination of their data processing equipment leases just because they did not use supplies manufactured by IBM. Such practice constituted a "tying agreement" and was found to be to violation of the Sherman and Clayton Antitrust Law (IBM vs. the United States)
Procurement professionals don’t have to be intimidated when printer suppliers claim they will void a warranty on equipment if Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) ink or toner is not used. Nor should they be allowed to try to charge extra for not using the OEM ink or toner. This is illegal because this is referred to as product linking or a "tying agreement". This knowledge can help buyers stand up for their right to free choice of supplies and suppliers because doing so is acting within the letter of the law. OEMs and printer service people are aware of lower priced supplies, so it’s in their best interests to convince buyers not to use competing products. Use this knowledge to defend against attempts by suppliers to infringe on warranty rights.
In Washington, the current contractor for remanufactured toner cartridges makes available the Clover Remanufactured cartridges and covers more than just the cartridge replacement. The guarantee/warranty of the Clover product (Office Depot Label) goes as far as to warrant the cost of service calls to the cost for a replacement printer if the issue is related to the cartridge itself. So the issue of the warranties or cost to replace them is not an issue.
Renewable energy is energy produced from naturally derived sources that replenish themselves over a period of time without depleting the Earth’s resources. The only way to ensure that green electricity is being used at a particular site is to produce it at that site through photo-voltaic panels (energy from the sun), a windmill, a small hydro turbine, or geo-thermal energy. Green Tags are certificates that are used to support the investment in green power production facilities. Visit Green-E for information regarding energy certification labels and renewable energy claims, or US DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy for further information about renewable electricity generation.
There is truly an enormous volume of information available on the internet, and it is sometimes hard to differentiate which resources will provide the best information for decision-making. This guide provides a good starting point and resources for learning more about Environmentally Preferable Products and green purchasing options. Please refer to the resources and links provided in the attached Appendices.
The NASPO Green Purchasing Committee plans to develop a library of basic green specifications for commodities, and is interested in capturing such language that has been successfully applied to solicitations by states, institutions of higher education, and political subdivisions. There are currently several online resources and examples provided by the Responsible Purchasing Network (by subscription), and the Sustainable Purchasing Leadership Council that offer some guidance and suggested green purchasing language.
There are a number of certification standards and online resource sites available in the Green Purchasing General Resources section of this guide. When a supplier makes green claims, ask for clarifications:
Once this information is obtained, the claim can be validated or challenged. Refer to the Easing the Burden of Buying Green section of this guide regarding Verifying Claims, and specifically to the concept of "greenwashing."
The listed resources and links found in the Green Purchasing General Resources section of this guide provide several online product-specific sites, as well as organizations that offer category specific product guidance. A bit of research using these provided resources will help users better understand what is available, and how to approach specifications tailored to their particular customer needs. See also FAQ #5.
Not all EPP goods are more expensive than OEM counterparts. For example, Remanufactured Toner cartridges can cost up to seventy-five percent less than their OEM counterparts. Some might argue that the quality of printing may not be equal, which may be true of some brands. Purchasers should do their diligence by requiring performance specifications, requesting and testing samples, and warranties that provide acceptable protections. Other examples include recycled content copy paper, and certain cleaning supplies. If customers are duplex printing, and only when necessary, lowered paper consumption should easily offset any small difference in the cost between virgin and recycled content paper. In recent years, thirty percent PCW paper has nearly dropped to the price point of virgin copy paper. The old argument that recycled paper is an inferior product is also outdated; again, ask for and test samples of these paper types, it is difficult to find any difference.
Cleaning supplies are a good example of TCO. When indoor air quality, VOCs, and employee health and sick leave risk from exposure to toxic chemicals are factored, the choice of reduced toxicity cleaning supplies becomes a measurable cost consideration.
First and foremost, there must be support from management or the highest possible authority, or trying to convince customers to "go green" will meet difficult resistance. If the organization is not interested in supporting or practicing sustainable values, change will be difficult at best. Once policy and support is in place, it is easier to make the case for green products, though it will still be challenging at times.
Review of the Green Purchasing Glossary of Terms; and the Green Purchasing General Resources section; will provide a basic idea of the difference between independent, science-based standards entities and industry self-certifying green label entities. Each has its place, depending on the level of EPP scrutiny users are willing to accept. Various industries are making positive strides toward environmentally-focused stewardship, acquisition, production, operations, transportation, and reductions in waste and pollutants to compete for market share. As sustainability becomes a greater part of the business equation, third party standards provide examples for business to compare theirs to, but often as not, industry standards provide a good measure of how business is trying to improve practices and become more environmentally responsive.
Despite best intentions, sometimes there are reasons for not fully investing in green products. Understanding motivations and presenting findings to decision makers from an economic, health and safety standpoint are a good approach. Gathering spend data, comparing green to existing products, and conducting a cost/benefit analysis are the most direct approach to convincing leadership to consider EPP. Small pilot projects often work better than large scale change.
The primary consideration for most purchasers is price, but sometimes performance can be a point of contention. An EPP product should not be disproportionately expensive or work less efficiently when compared to OEM, virgin, or comparable industry-standard products. Shipping can be another negative issue when considering LCA, as the GHG footprint is significant. Buying locally is usually better (if available) than acquiring a product from great distances. There are similar trade-offs to be considered that aren’t very different from considering the total cost of ownership for any procurement: local, regional, off-shore; meets minimum performance requirements, available at a reasonable cost, time, and does/ does not provide value-add features.